The original austenitic manganese steel, containing about 1.2% C and 12% Mn,
was invented by Sir Robert Hadfield in 1882. Hadfield`s steel was unique
in that it combined high toughness and ductility with high work-hardening
capacity and, usually, good resistance to wear.
Consequently, it rapidly gained acceptance as a very useful engineering
material. Hadfield`s austenitic manganese steel is still used extensively,
with minor modifications in composition and heat treatment, primarily in
the fields of earthmoving, mining, quarrying, oil well drilling, steelmaking,
railroading, dredging, lumbering, and in the manufacture of cement and
clay products. Austenitic manganese steel is used in equipment for
handling and processing earthen materials (such as rock crushers,
grinding mills, dredge buckets, power shovel buckets and teeth, and
pumps for handling gravel and rocks). Other applications include
fragmentizer hammers and grates for automobile recycling and military
applications such as tank track pads.
Many variations of the original austenitic manganese steel have been
proposed, often in unexploited patents, but only a few have been adopted
as significant improvements. These usually involve variations of carbon
and manganese, with or without additional alloys such as chromium, nickel,
molybdenum, vanadium, titanium, and bismuth.
The available assortment of wrought grades is smaller and usually
approximates ASTM composition B-3. Some wrought grades contain about
0.8% C and either 3% Ni or 1% Mo. Large heat orders
are usually required for the production of wrought grades, while cast
grades and their modifications are more easily obtained in small lots.
A manganese steel foundry may have several dozen modified grades on its
production list. Modified grades are usually produced to meet the
requirements of application, section size, casting size, cost, and
The mechanical properties of austenitic manganese steel vary with both
carbon and manganese content. As carbon is increased it becomes
increasingly difficult to retain all of the carbon in solid solution,
which may account for reductions in tensile strength and ductility.
Nevertheless, because abrasion resistance tends to increase with carbon,
carbon content higher than the 1.2% midrange of grade A may be preferred
even when ductility is lowered. Carbon content above 1.4% is seldom used
because of the difficulty of obtaining an austenitic structure sufficiently
free of grain, boundary carbides, which are detrimental to strength and
ductility. The effect can also be observed in 13% Mn steels containing
less than 1.4% C because segregation may result in local variations of ±17%
(±0.2%C) from the average carbon level determined by chemical analysis.
The low carbon content (0.7% C minimum) of grades D and E-1 may be used to
minimize carbide precipitation in heavy castings or in weldments, and
similar low carbon contents are specified for welding filler metal.
Carbides form in castings that are cooled slowly in the molds. In fact,
carbides form in practically all as cast grades containing more than
1.0% C, regardless of mold cooling rates. They form in heavy-section
castings during heat treatment if quenching is ineffective in producing
rapid cooling throughout the entire section thickness. Carbides can form
during welding or during service at temperatures above about 275°C.
If carbon and manganese are lowered together, for instance to 0.53%
C with 8.3% Mn or 0.62% C with 8.1% Mn,
the work-hardening rate is increased because of the formation of
strain-induced a (body-centered-cubic, or bcc) martensite. However,
this does not provide enhanced abrasion resistance (at least to
high-stress grinding abrasion) as is often hoped.
Titanium can reduce carbon in austenite by forming very stable carbides.
The resulting properties may simulate those of lower-carbon grade.
Titanium may also somewhat neutralize the effect of excessive phosphorus;
some European practice is apparently based on this idea. Microalloying
additions (<0.1%) of titanium, vanadium, boron, zirconium and nitrogen
have been reported to promote grain refinement in manganese steels. The
effect, however, is inconsistent. Higher level of these elements can
result in serious losses in ductility. Nitrogen in amounts greater
than 0.20% can cause gas porosity in castings. An overall reduction
in grain size lowers the susceptibility of the steel to hot tearing.
Sulfur. The sulfur content in manganese steels seldom influences
its properties, because the scavenging effect of manganese operates to
eliminate sulfur by fixing it in the form of innocuous, rounded, sulfide
inclusions. The elongation of these inclusions in wrought steels may
contribute in directional properties; in cast steels such inclusions
are harmless. However, it is best to keep sulfur as low as is practically
possible to minimize the number of inclusions in the microstructure that
would be potential sites for the nucleation of fatigue cracks in service.
Higher Manganese Content Steel
Austenitic steels with higher manganese contents (>15%) have recently been
developed for applications requiring low magnetic permeability,
low temperature (cryogenic) strength and low temperature toughness.
This applications stem from the development of superconducting
technologies used in transportation systems and nuclear fusion research
and to meet the need for structural materials to store and transport
For low magnetic permeability, these alloys have lower carbon content
than the regular Hadfield steels. The corresponding loss in yield
strength is compensated by alloying with vanadium, nitrogen, chromium,
molybdenum, and titanium. Chromium also imparts corrosion resistance,
as required in some cryogenic applications.
The alloys are used in the heat-treated (solution-annealed and quenched)
condition except for those that are age-hardenable. Wrought alloys are
available in the hot-rolled condition. The microstructure is usually a
mixture of g (face-centered cubic or fcc)
austenite and e (hexagonal close-packed, or hcp)
These alloys are characterized by good ductility and toughness,
both especially desirable attributes in cryogenic applications.
Further, the ductile-brittle transition is gradual, not abrupt. Because
the stability of the austenite is composition dependent, a
deformation-induced transformation can occur in service under certain
conditions. This is usually undesirable because it is accompanied by a
corresponding increase in magnetic permeability.
Additions of sulfur, calcium, and aluminum are made to enhance the
machinability of these alloys where required. Because of their lower
carbon content, most of these alloys are readily weldable by the
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW),
and electron beam welding (EBW) processes. The composition of the
weld metal is similar to that of the base metal and tailored for
low magnetic permeability. The phosphorus content is generally
maintained below 0.02% to minimize the tendency for hot cracking.
Another class of austenitic steels with high manganese additions has
been developed for cryogenic and for marine applications with resistance
to cavitation corrosion. These alloys have been viewed as economical
substitutes for conventional austenitic stainless steels because they
contain aluminum and manganese instead of chromium and nickel.
Consequently, these alloys are generally of higher strength but
lower ductility than conventional stainless steels such as type 304.
The microstructure of these alloys is a mixture of g (fcc) austenite
and e (hcp) martensite, and in some cases (especially when the aluminum
content exceeds about 5%) a (bcc) ferrite. There is a tendency for an
embrittling b-Mn phase to form in the high manganese compositions during
aging at elevated temperatures. The result is a significant decrease in
ductility. The addition of aluminum to some extent suppresses the
precipitation of this compound.
Heat treatment strengthens austenitic manganese steel so that it can be
used safely and reliably in a wide variety of engineering applications.
Solution annealing and quenching, the standard treatment that produces
normal tensile properties and the desired toughness, involves austenitizing
followed quickly by water quenching. Variations of this treatment can be
used to enhance specific desired properties such as yield strength and
Usually, a fully austenitic structure, essentially free of carbides and
reasonably homogeneous with respect to carbon and manganese, is desired in
the as-quenched condition, although this is not always attainable in heavy
sections or in steels containing carbide-forming elements such as chromium,
molybdenum, vanadium and titanium. If carbides exist in the as-quenched
structure, it is desirable for them to be present as relatively innocuous
particles or nodules within the austenite grains rather than as continuous
envelopes at grain boundaries.
Mechanical Properties After Heat Treatment
As the section size of manganese steel increases, tensile strength and
ductility decrease substantially in specimens cut from heat-treated
castings. This occurs because, except under specially controlled
conditions, heavy sections do not solidify in the mold fast enough
to prevent coarse grain size, a condition that is not altered by heat
Fine grain specimens may exhibit tensile strength and elongation as much
as 30% greater than those of coarse-grain specimens. Grain size is also
the main reason for the differences between cast and wrought manganese
steels -- the latter are usually on fine grain size.
Mechanical properties vary with section size. Tensile strength,
tensile elongation, reduction in area and impact strength are
substantially lower in 102 mm (4 inches) thick sections than in
25 mm (1 inch) thick sections. Because section thicknesses of
production castings are often from 102 to 152 mm (4 to 6 inches),
this factor is an important consideration for proper grade specification.
Austenitic manganese steel remains tough at subzero temperatures above
the Ms temperature. The steel is apparently immune to hydrogen
embrittlement. There is gradual decrease in impact strength with
decreasing temperature. The transition temperature is not well
defined because there is no sharp inflection in the impact
strength-temperature curve down to temperatures as low as -85oC.
At a given temperature and section size, nickel and manganese additions
are usually beneficial for enhancing impact strength, while higher carbon
and chromium levels are not.
Resistance to crack propagation is high and is associated with very
sluggish progressive failures. Because of this, any fatigue cracks that
develop might be detected, and the affected part or parts removed from
service before complete failure occurs.
Yield strength and hardness vary only slightly with section size.
The hardness of most grades is about 200 HB after solution annealing
and quenching, but this value has little significance for estimating
machinability or wear resistance.
List of Articles - Knowledge Base